REPRESENTATIVE PRESIDENT OF INDONESIA

From Mohammad Hatta (1945) to Ma'aruf Amin (2019-2024)

MOHAMMAD HATTA (1945 - 1967)

Mohammad Hatta was the first vice president of the Republic of Indonesia. Mohammad Hatta's political milestone was his role in transforming a presidential democracy into a parliamentary democracy. Notice of Vice President No. X stated that before the formation of the Central Indonesian National Committee (KNIP) the People's Consultative Assembly and the People's Legislative Assembly were entrusted with executive powers, which were carried out by the KNIP on a daily basis. The explanation for the edict issued on October 20, 1945 actually carried a parliamentary concept. For the period of parliamentary democracy, the leadership of nationalism was still carried out by the dual Soekarno-Hatta. Apart from Notice No. X, Mohammad Hatta also issued a government announcement dated November 3, 1945 regarding suggestions to the people to form political parties. This announcement not only acknowledged the importance of political parties, but also placed the government in a pro-active position towards forming political parties (Kasirun, 2018).

SRI SULTAN HAMENGKU BUWONO IX (1973 - 1978)

When Soekarno and Hatta proclaimed independence on August 17, 1945, afterwards Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono congratulated the proclaimer. Two weeks later, on September 5, 1945 to be precise, he and Paku Alam VIII, issued an edict stating that the Yogyakarta area was part of the territory of the Republic of Indonesia. Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX's role in the republic was also demonstrated through financial support. As long as the republican government was in Yogyakarta, all funding matters were taken from the palace treasury. This includes the salaries of the President, Vice President, staff, TNI operations to travel and accommodation costs for delegations sent abroad (Kratonjogja.id, tt). Along the journey of the Republic of Indonesia as a state, Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX has devoted himself in various positions. Apart from being a freedom fighter, Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX was listed as Minister of State from the Syahrir Cabinet era (2 October 1946 - 27 June 1947) to the Hatta Cabinet I (29 January 1948 to 4 August 1949). During the Hatta II cabinet (4 August 1949 to 20 December 1949) until the RIS period (20 December 1949 to 6 September 1950) he served as Minister of Defense, as well as Deputy Prime Minister in the Natsir Cabinet era (6 September 1950 to 27 April 1951 ). He continued to hold various positions in each period until in 1973 he became the second Vice President of the Republic of Indonesia (Kratonjogja.id, tt).

ADAM MALIK 1978 - 1983)

Adam Malik is a figure who pioneered the formation of ASEAN in 1967. He was even entrusted with becoming Chair of the 26th UN General Assembly in New York. He is the second Asian to chair the highest body in the world. In 1977, he was elected chairman of the DPR/MPR. Then three months later, in the General Session of the MPR in March 1978 he was elected as the 3rd Vice President of the Republic of Indonesia to replace Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX who suddenly stated that he was not willing to be nominated again (pemkomedan.go.id, 07/01/2014). Suharto appointed him as Deputy President of the Republic of Indonesia for the 1978-1983 term or in the Development Cabinet III. Adam Malik contributed to the development of the nation and state as well as experiencing the glory days of the New Order at that time (tirto.id, 22/07/2018). Adam Malik is a national figure who has a high commitment to strengthening and advancing the cooperative relations between Indonesia and Malaysia. Through Adam Malik on August 11, 1966, the Government of Indonesia and the Government of Malaysia signed an Agreement on the Normalization of Diplomatic Relations between the two countries which was interrupted due to confrontation for approximately three years. Several times, Adam Malik criticized government policies. In 1979, he criticized the Suharto regime, which he said had violated the 1945 Constitution. Two years later, in 1981 to be precise, Adam Malik again criticized Suharto, which he called an "epidemic", referring to the strong aura of corruption in the New Order regime. In 1983, Adam Malik was replaced by Umar Wirahadikusumah (idntimes.com, 29/07/2020).

UMAR WIRAHADIKUSUMAH (1983-1988)

After Suharto was accompanied by Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX (1973-1978) and Adam Malik (1978-1983) who incidentally were Vice President (Wapres) from civilian circles, in 1983 Suharto was accompanied by Umar Wirahadikusumah, the Vice President who came from military circles. When the 1965 G30S broke out, Umar was one of the army generals who was not kidnapped. Like Suharto, Umar also had an important position. Umar's military career path was also somewhat similar to Suharto's. In Indonesian military history, Umar was the first Sundanese to ever become number one in the Army. Like most Indonesian Vice Presidents during the New Order era, Umar Wirahadikusumah was involved in the revolution as a Batch of 45. When Adam Malik ceased to be Vice President after 1983, Umar was mentioned as a strong candidate to replace him. Harry Fatty Janarto in Karlinah Umar Wirahadikusumah: Not Just a Soldier's Wife (156), mentions that Umar's potential to become vice president is none other than because Umar became someone close to Suharto when the G30S erupted. Umar's appointment as vice president was seen as a return for Soeharto's kindness. At that time, Umar was serving as chairman of the Supreme Audit Agency (BPK). BPK chairman is not a prestigious position for a general. This position is often filled by generals who are considered "outcasts" (tirto.id, 13/03/2019).

SUDHARMONO (1988 - 1993)

TNI Lieutenant General (Purn.) Sudharmono was born in Gresik, East Java, on March 12, 1927. History records that Sudharmono was the 5th Vice President (Wapres) of the Republic of Indonesia and became one of Suharto's confidants when the New Order was still victorious. Sudharmono's closeness to Suharto grew closer after the 1965 September 30 Movement (G30S) which killed a number of high-ranking Army officers. When Suharto received the Order for March 11, 1966 or Supersemar, which later became controversial, Sudharmono was the one who copied the magic letter. The regime change from the Old Order to the New Order was like a blessing for Sudharmono. He had served as Minister of State Secretary, Minister of Home Affairs, Chairman of Golkar, until he was appointed by Suharto, who at that time was already in power as president, to accompany him as Vice President (tirto.id, 12/03/2019).

TRY SUTRISNO(1993 - 1998)

Entering 1993, Suharto was preparing to elect a new vice president. There are at least two names of candidates, namely Baharudin Jusuf Habibie and Try Sutrisno. The first name is a technocrat who specializes in making planes, and chairman of the newly formed Association of Indonesian Muslim Intellectuals (ICMI). At that time Suharto was intimate with Islamic groups. Meanwhile, the second name is a general who is currently the Commander in Chief of the Indonesian Armed Forces (ABRI), as well as Suharto's former adjutant. When the Tanjung Priok Incident erupted in 1984, Try was the Commander of KODAM Jaya. Even though he stumbled over the Tanjung Priok case which killed hundreds of people, Try's fate was not as bad as Sintong Panjaitan, the former Commander of the Udayana Military Command during the Santa Cruz Incident. According to Jusuf Wanandi's note in Unraveling the Veil of the New Order: Indonesian Political Memoirs 1965-1998 (2014), Try Sutrisno's career was saved by Suharto and Moerdani. Even though he was already friendly with Islamic groups, it turned out that Suharto could not just turn away from ABRI. Finally Try Sutrisno was elected as Vice President in 1983 (tirto.id, 15/03/2019).

Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie (1998)

After nearly 20 years of studying and working in Germany, Habibie was summoned by the 2nd President of the Republic of Indonesia, Soeharto, to return to Indonesia in 1973. At that time, Suharto considered that Habibie could give a new touch to the development of the technology industry in Indonesia. Habibie later became the founder of the Nusantara Aircraft Industry (IPTN). He was also given a mandate by President Soeharto as Minister of State for Research and Technology in 1978 and served for 20 years. However, during the monetary crisis, Suharto was forced to close IPTN. During times of economic crisis, Habibie was appointed vice president in the VII Development Cabinet on March 14, 1998. Habibie, who usually handled technology development, eventually took part in the economic crisis that hit Indonesia in 1997-1998 (kumparan.com, 11/1998). 09/2019). Habibie was appointed Vice President of the Republic of Indonesia on March 14, 1998. But riots and political turmoil centered in Jakarta eventually overthrew President Suharto who had been in power for 32 years. After the fall of Suharto on May 21 1998, Habibie was automatically appointed as the third president of the Republic of Indonesia (news.detik.com, 25/07/2019).

MEGAWATI SUKARNOPUTRI(1999 - 2001)

Megawati was appointed by the MPR as Vice President to accompany President Abdurrahman Wahid alias Gus Dur in the 1999 elections. Two years before the inauguration, Megawati was actually a figure who was hailed as the replacement president for BJ Habibie. Even before the fall of the New Order, Megawati managed to control the Democratic Party (PDI) and turn it into the PDI-Perjuangan. Support for Mega as a form of resistance to Suharto at that time was unstoppable. However, in the 1999 election Megawati failed to become president. In fact, at that time PDI-P won the legislative elections after winning

HAMZAH HAZ (2001 - 2004)

Hamzah Haz was appointed by the MPR as the 9th vice president to accompany Megawati Soekarnoputri towards the closing of the Special Session (SI) on July 26, 2001. Became the highest authority in PPP, the third largest party in parliament at that time which led Hamzah Haz to the position of number two in Indonesia. He and Megawati led Indonesia until 2004.

MUHAMMAD JUSUF KALLA (2004 - 2009)

Jusuf Kalla (JK) is the first vice president in Indonesia to be directly elected by the people through general elections. He was elected as the 10th vice president of Indonesia after winning the 2004 election with Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (SBY). In the first round of the 2004 elections, SBY and JK, supported by the Democratic Party, PBB and PKPI, managed to get 33.57 percent of the vote. This achievement made SBY and JK succeed in placing first and defeating other candidates; Wiranto and Salahuddin Wahid (22,19%), Megawati Soekarnoputri and Ahmad Hasyim Muzadi (26,24%), Amien Rais and Siswono Yudo Husodo (14,94%), and Hamzah Haz and Agum Gumelar (13,05%) (KPU, 2010).

BOEDIONO(2009 - 2014)

Boediono was elected as the 11th vice president of Indonesia after successfully winning the 2004 elections with Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (SBY). The 2009 presidential election put SBY-Boediono as the winner by obtaining 73,874,562 votes or 60.80 percent. In second place, namely the pair Megawati Soekarnoputri-Prabowo Subianto with 32,548,105 votes or 26.79 percent. Meanwhile, in third place was the Jusuf Kalla-Wiranto pair who received 15,081,814 votes or 12.41 percent. The vote acquisition for candidate pair number 2, SBY-Boediono, has fulfilled more than 50 percent of the total election votes, and at least 20 percent in each province. Therefore, the KPU also stipulates that this presidential election will only last one round (Kompas.com, 18/08/2009).

MUHAMMAD JUSUF KALLA (2014 - 2019)

Jusuf Kalla returned to become vice president in the Joko Widodo era. JK managed to occupy the position of vice president after winning the 2014 Presidential Election with a vote of 53.15 percent, beating the Prabowo Subianto-Hatta Rajasa pair who obtained a vote of 46.65 percent (BBC, 10/5/2014). JK was appointed as the 12th Vice President on October 20 2014. When he served as Vice President, JK showed his expertise in improving the bureaucratic system in Indonesia which often becomes an obstacle in attracting foreign investors to invest their funds in the country. This then had an impact on increasing Indonesia's ease of doing business ranking from position 120 in 2014 to position 73. In addition, infrastructure development which was massively executed in JK's second term as vice president succeeded in boosting Indonesia's logistics performance index ranking to the position 46, from the previous position of 53 in 2014 (CNBC Indonesia, 4/12/2019).

MA'ARUF AMIN (2019 - 2024)

Ma'ruf Amin was elected as the 13th vice president after successfully winning the 2014 election with Jokowi with 55.50 percent, beating the Prabowo Subianto-Sandiaga Uno pair with 44.50 percent (Kontan, 21/05/2019). Ma'ruf Amin was chosen by Jokowi as his companion in the 2019 presidential election and replaced Jokowi's cawapres candidate, whose name was widely mentioned at that time, namely Mahfud MD. Ma'ruf became the third Vice President after Moh Hatta and Boediono who did not come from a political party.

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